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    美國人疫情期間離職成本有多高,這款工具算得明明白白

    美國人疫情期間離職成本有多高,這款工具算得明明白白

    Lee Clifford 2021年01月07日
    這款工具能夠根據薪資損失以及對個人退休儲蓄金和社保的影響,來計算離職的總財務成本。

    離職的代價不僅僅是你的薪資。

    美國進步中心(Center for American Progress)推出了一款工具,它能夠根據薪資損失以及對個人退休儲蓄金和社保的影響,來計算離職的總財務成本。

    結果可能會讓人大吃一驚。

    例如,如果一名年收入達10萬美元的35歲婦女休假兩年,那么其損失不僅僅只是20萬美元的薪資,同時還涉及134,524美元的薪資增長和111,767美元的退休資產收益損失,總損失將達到446,291美元。如果她將休假年限延長五年,那么損失將達到1,020,936美元。

    盡管美國進步中心推出的這個工具是為了凸顯美國兒童看護危機,但有鑒于一大批父母自2020年春天開始被迫改變其工作日程或徹底離職來照看小孩,這款工具也給出了一個新的審視視角?!度A盛頓郵報》(Washington Post)的民調顯示,“美國超過四分之三的母親和半數父親稱自己為了照看孩子而放棄了工作機會、調換了工作,或是辭職?!贝_實,美國進步中心開發這個計算器的經濟師邁克·馬多維茨稱,自1986年以來,我們從來沒有看到過女性就業和勞動力參與率降到過如此低的水平。馬多維茨寫道:“不管是因為崗位丟失的原因還是出于照看家庭的需要,或者兩者兼而有之,美國2020年的政策失敗可能會導致一代女性失去其職業?!?/p>

    明尼那波利斯聯邦儲備銀行(Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)的米斯蒂·黑杰尼斯與美國人口普查局(U.S. Census Bureau)在最近發表的工作論文中得出了類似的結論。她寫道:“總的來說,新冠疫情的出現似乎立即讓照顧學齡兒童的職場母親出現了專屬的手忙腳亂局面?!焙诮苣崴拱l現,“受早期關停令停影響,與學校關停較晚各州的職場母親相比,學校關停較早各州的職場母親出現‘有工作但不上班現象’的概率要高出53.2%?!保ㄋ€發現這一點對職場父親或沒有學齡兒童的職場女性沒有影響。)

    一些公立學校并未恢復現場授課的事實令很多專家尤為惱火,因為沒有證據證明學校在傳播病毒,尤其是在年幼的孩子之間,而學校的關閉讓美國家庭失去了一項重要的支持。黑杰尼斯說:“兒童看護和上學不僅對年輕一代人力資本的開發至關重要,同時對全職父母,尤其是母親來說也是至關重要的政策干預?!?/p>

    再者,白人母親所感到的這些壓力對黑人和拉丁裔母親來說更是不堪重負。正如美國進步中心所提到的那樣:“尤為顯著的是,黑人、拉丁裔以及土著女性——所有那些面臨著多重壓力的女性,會感受到來自于多方面的影響,包括更大的失業風險、作為必要員工在一線工作,以及獨自解決其兒童看護挑戰?!?/p>

    對于那些往往比配偶掙得更少、壽命更長的母親們來說,馬多維茨稱:“在兒童看護和上學問題因為新冠疫情而加劇之前,休假的機會成本對父母來說已經就夠驚人的了,但這個可怕的數學問題依然沒有任何變化?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

    譯者:馮豐

    審校:夏林

    離職的代價不僅僅是你的薪資。

    美國進步中心(Center for American Progress)推出了一款工具,它能夠根據薪資損失以及對個人退休儲蓄金和社保的影響,來計算離職的總財務成本。

    結果可能會讓人大吃一驚。

    例如,如果一名年收入達10萬美元的35歲婦女休假兩年,那么其損失不僅僅只是20萬美元的薪資,同時還涉及134,524美元的薪資增長和111,767美元的退休資產收益損失,總損失將達到446,291美元。如果她將休假年限延長五年,那么損失將達到1,020,936美元。

    盡管美國進步中心推出的這個工具是為了凸顯美國兒童看護危機,但有鑒于一大批父母自2020年春天開始被迫改變其工作日程或徹底離職來照看小孩,這款工具也給出了一個新的審視視角?!度A盛頓郵報》(Washington Post)的民調顯示,“美國超過四分之三的母親和半數父親稱自己為了照看孩子而放棄了工作機會、調換了工作,或是辭職?!贝_實,美國進步中心開發這個計算器的經濟師邁克·馬多維茨稱,自1986年以來,我們從來沒有看到過女性就業和勞動力參與率降到過如此低的水平。馬多維茨寫道:“不管是因為崗位丟失的原因還是出于照看家庭的需要,或者兩者兼而有之,美國2020年的政策失敗可能會導致一代女性失去其職業?!?/p>

    明尼那波利斯聯邦儲備銀行(Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)的米斯蒂·黑杰尼斯與美國人口普查局(U.S. Census Bureau)在最近發表的工作論文中得出了類似的結論。她寫道:“總的來說,新冠疫情的出現似乎立即讓照顧學齡兒童的職場母親出現了專屬的手忙腳亂局面?!焙诮苣崴拱l現,“受早期關停令停影響,與學校關停較晚各州的職場母親相比,學校關停較早各州的職場母親出現‘有工作但不上班現象’的概率要高出53.2%?!保ㄋ€發現這一點對職場父親或沒有學齡兒童的職場女性沒有影響。)

    一些公立學校并未恢復現場授課的事實令很多專家尤為惱火,因為沒有證據證明學校在傳播病毒,尤其是在年幼的孩子之間,而學校的關閉讓美國家庭失去了一項重要的支持。黑杰尼斯說:“兒童看護和上學不僅對年輕一代人力資本的開發至關重要,同時對全職父母,尤其是母親來說也是至關重要的政策干預?!?/p>

    再者,白人母親所感到的這些壓力對黑人和拉丁裔母親來說更是不堪重負。正如美國進步中心所提到的那樣:“尤為顯著的是,黑人、拉丁裔以及土著女性——所有那些面臨著多重壓力的女性,會感受到來自于多方面的影響,包括更大的失業風險、作為必要員工在一線工作,以及獨自解決其兒童看護挑戰?!?/p>

    對于那些往往比配偶掙得更少、壽命更長的母親們來說,馬多維茨稱:“在兒童看護和上學問題因為新冠疫情而加劇之前,休假的機會成本對父母來說已經就夠驚人的了,但這個可怕的數學問題依然沒有任何變化?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

    譯者:馮豐

    審校:夏林

    It’s not just your salary.

    A tool from the Center for American Progress (CAP) allows anyone to calculate the total financial toll of leaving the workforce based on loss of salary but also the hit to your retirement savings and Social Security.

    The results can be dramatic.

    For instance, a 35-year-old woman who makes $100,000 and takes a two-year break from the workforce loses not just $200,000 in salary, but $134,524 in lost wage growth and $111,767 in lost retirement asset benefits for a total loss of $446,291. If she extends that break to five years she stands to lose $1,020,936.

    Though the Center for American Progress launched the tool to highlight America’s childcare crisis, it is newly relevant given the number of parents (and particularly women) who have been forced to alter their work schedules or leave the workforce entirely to provide childcare since last spring. A Washington Post poll found that “more than three-quarters of mothers and half of fathers in the United States say they’ve passed up work opportunities, switched jobs, or quit to tend to their kids.” Indeed, as Michael Madowitz, an economist with the CAP who developed the calculator, notes, we have not seen women’s employment and labor force participation rates this low since 1986. “Whether it’s the push of job loss, the pull of care at home, or both, U.S. policy failures in 2020 risk a lost generation of women’s careers,” writes Madowitz.

    Misty L. Heggeness of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis and U.S. Census Bureau came to a similar conclusion in a recent working paper. “Overall, the pandemic appears to have induced a unique immediate juggling act for working mothers of school-age children,” she wrote. She found that “mothers with jobs in early closure states were 53.2% more likely than mothers in late closure states to have a job but not be working as a result of early shutdowns.” (She found no effect on working fathers or working women without school-age children.)

    The fact that some public schools have still not reopened to in-person learning has been particularly galling to many experts, given that—especially among younger age children—schools have not been shown to be spreading the virus and that it removes an essential support for American families. As Heggeness puts it, “Childcare and schooling are not just essential for the human capital development of our youth; they are also critical policy interventions for the full employment of parents, especially mothers.”

    And once again, any strain that white mothers may feel falls even harder on Black and Latinx mothers. As CAP outlines: “Black, Latinx, and Indigenous women especially—all of whom face intersecting oppressions—are also feeling the multiple effects of being more likely to have lost their jobs, being on the front lines as essential workers, and solving their childcare challenges on their own.”

    For mothers—who already tend to earn less and live longer than their partners—Madowitz concludes: “The opportunity costs of taking time off were already striking for parents before the childcare and school-access problem got even worse with COVID, but the grim math is still the same.”

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